Active compounds: ginsenosides

Pharmacologically, the most important components of American ginseng are the saponin fraction, commonly known as ginsenosides, and the polysaccharide fraction.

The constituents of the Panax genus that are thought to confer its bioactivity are the ginsenoside saponins. To date, more than 80 ginsenosides have been isolated from the genus Panax.

For consistency and practicality, however, only seven well-recognized standards are used to characterize ginseng products: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg1.
Six major ginsenosides-Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd-have been identified in the roots and leaves of American ginseng.

The total ginsenoside content in Panax quinquefolius root increases with age, moreover it can vary depending the location growth.